polychromy, architectural, Greek and Roman (2024)

  • 1. Overviews: Marie-Christine Hellmann, L’ Architecture Grecque: 1, Les Principes de la Construction (Paris: Picard, 2002), 229–256; Torsten Mattern, “‘Vielheit und Einheit’: Zu Erscheinungsbild und Wirkung römischer Tempelarchitektur,”Bonner Jahrbücher, 199 (1999), 1–30; Vinzenz Brinkmann, Die Polychromie der archaischen und frühklassischen Skulptur (Munich: Biering & Brinkmann, 2003), 33–40; Kakullē, Iōanna. Greek Painting Techniques and Materials from the Fourth to the First Century BC (London: Archetype, 2009); Stephan Zink, “Roman Architectural Polychromy: Colors, Materials, and Techniques,” in Transformations: Classical Sculpture in Colour, ed. Jan Stubbe Østergaard and Anne Marie Nielsen (Copenhagen: Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, 2014), 208–227; ; and .

  • 2. Colour hues of bronze: Plin. H.N. 33.8.57 and 34.40.140–141.

  • 3. Hariclia Brecoulaki, “A propos des peintres tétrachromatistes et de la distinction entre colores austeri et colores floridi: l’économie des moyens picturaux contre l’emploi des matériaux onéreux”, in Couleurs et Matières dans L’Antiquité: Textes, Techniques et Pratiques, ed. Agnès Rouveret, Sandrine Dubel and Valérie Naas (Paris: Éd. Rue d’Ulm, 2006), 29–42; and Hariclia Brecoulaki, “Precious Colours” in Ancient Greek Polychromy and Painting: Material Aspects and Symbolic Values,” Revue Archéologique 1 (2014), 3–35.

  • 4. Athens, Erechtheion: IG3, 476, l. 270–272; column in the Cynosarges: IG II2, 1665, l.23; Epidauros, Asklepieion: IG IV2 102, l.21–22, 29, 49, 58, 108, 300–301; Plin. H.N. 35.5.124. For the first evidence on encaustic architectural painting now Eleni Aggelakopoulou, Sophia Sotiropoulou and Georgios Karagiannis, “The Architectural Polychromy on the Athenian Acropolis. New data obtained through recent in situ noninvasive analytical investigation of the colour remains on the Parthenon and Propylaea” (paper presented at the 9th International Round Table on Polychromy in Ancient Sculpture and Architecture, British Museum London, November 9–10, 2018; conference proceedings in preparation).

  • 5. Hermann von Rohden, Architektonische römische Tonreliefs der Kaiserzeit, Die antiken Terrakotten vol. 4.1 (Berlin: Spemann, 1911), 26–29; Herbert Koch, Dachterrakotten aus Campanien mit Ausschluss von Pompei (Berlin: Reimer, 1912), 11–14; and Nancy A. Winter, Symbols of Wealth and Power: Architectural Terracotta Decoration in Etruria and Central Italy, 640–510 B.C. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2009), 519–523.

  • 6. On the technique: Roger Ling, “Stuccowork,” in Roman Crafts, ed. Donald Emrys Strong (London: Duckworth 1976), 209–221; and Lepinski, “Interior Design,” 732–734.

  • 7. Vitr. 7.3.6 and 7.6.1; Varro Rust. 1.59.3; and Plin. H.N. 36.55.176–177.

  • 8. Marie-Christine Hellmann, Recherches sur le vocabulaire de l’architecture grecque, d’après les inscriptions de Délos (Athènes: École Française d’Athènes 1992), 37–42 s.v. aleipho, aloiphē; material evidence for white varnish: Ian Jenkins, Corrado Gratziu, Andrew Middleton, “The Polychromy of the Mausoleum,” in Sculptors and Sculpture of Caria and the Dodecanese, ed. Ian Jenkins and Geoffrey B. Waywell (London: British Museum Press, 1997), 38–39; and Günther Stanzl, “Das Ptolemaion von Limyra,” in L’ Architecture monumentale grecque au IIIe siècle a.C., ed. Jacques des Courtils (Bordeaux: Ausonius Éditions, 2015), 184.

  • 9. Plin. H.N. 33.61–64 (metal leaf and gilding on marble) and 35.36 (red bolus pigment); James Bruce Summitt, “Greek Architectural Polychromy from the Seventh to Second Centuries BCE: History and Significance” (PhD diss., University of Michigan, 2000), 35–36, 233–234; and Brinkmann, Polychromie der Skulptur, 38–39.

  • 10. Summitt, Architectural Polychromy, 28–36; and Brinkmann, Polychromie der Skulptur, 27–28.

  • 11. Recently (with earlier bibliography), Olga Palagia and Scott Pike, “Art Historical and Scientific Perspectives on the Nature of the Orange-Red Patina of the Parthenon,” in Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone 10. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference of ASMOSIA, ed. Patrizio and Eleonora Gasparini (Rome: Erma di Bretschneider, 2014), 881–888.

  • 12. Ernst Curtius, Friedrich Adler, eds., Olympia: Die Ergebnisse der von dem Deutschen Reich veranstalteten Ausgrabung, Die Baudenkmäler von Olympia, Textband 2 (Berlin: Asher 1892), 186–187; and Ernst Curtius, Friedrich Adler, eds., Olympia: Die Ergebnisse der von dem Deutschen Reich veranstalteten Ausgrabung, Die Baudenkmäler von Olympia, Tafelband 2 (Berlin: Asher 1896), pl. 114.

  • 13. Thomas G. Schattner, Griechische Hausmodelle: Untersuchungen zur frühgiechischen Architektur (Berlin: Gebr. Mann, 1990), 139; Wolfram Hoepfner, “Farbe in der griechischen Architektur,” in Color in Ancient Greece: The Role of Color in Ancient Greek Art and Architecture (700–31 B.C.), Proceedings of the Conference held in Thessaloniki, 12th–16th April, 2000, ed. Michalēs A. Tiverios and Despoina S. Tsiaphakē, (Thessaloniki: Aristoteleio Panepistēmio Thessalonikēs, 2002), 38; and Hellmann, L’Architecture grecque, 230.

  • 14. Charles Brian Rose, “Fieldwork at Phrygian Gordion, 2013–2015,” American Journal of Archaeology 121 (2017): 157–160.

  • 15. P. Chapin, “Aegean Painting in the Bronze Age,” in The Cambridge History of Painting in the Classical World, ed. J. J. Pollitt, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014), 1–65; and Alexander von Normann, Architekturtoreutik in der Antike (Munich: Tuduv, 1996), 25–33 passim.

  • 16. Overviews: Nancy A. Winter, Greek Architectural Terracottas: From the Prehistoric to the End of the Archaic Period, Oxford Monographs on Classical Archaeology (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993); Nancy A. Winter, “The Use of Color on Archaic Architectural Terracottas and Figurines,” in Color in Ancient Greece, ed. Michalis A. Tiverios (Thessalonika, Greece: Aristoteleio Panepistemio, 2002), 47–52; and .

  • 17. For pale yellow terracotta roofs tiles, see Corinth, early Temple of Apollo, perhaps also Isthmia, Temple of Poseidon: Sapirstein, “Origins,” 49; and Hoepfner, “Farbe,” 38–39, 276 (Fig.1). Roofs with black tiles interspersed, see Joachim Heiden, Die Tondächer von Olympia (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1995), 12–18; and Sapirstein, “Origins and Design of Terracotta Roofs,” 47.

  • 18. Ernst-Ludwig Schwandner, Der ältere Porostempel der Aphaia auf Aegina (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1985), 72–85; and Winter, Greek Terracottas, 153–155; and Sapirstein, “Origins and Design of Terracotta Roofs,” 52.

  • 19. On the roofs from Thermos, Corfu, and Kalydon, see J. A. Papapostolou, “Colour in Archaic Painting,” in Tiverios et al., Color in Ancient Greece, 60, with scientific analysis; Philip Sapirstein, “The Monumental Archaic Roof of the Temple of Hera at Mon Repos, Corfu,” Hesperia 81 (2012): 31–91; and Winter, Greek Architectural Terracottas, 119–121.

  • 20. Åke Åkerström, Terrakotten Kleinasien (Lund, Sweden: Gleerup, 1966), 201; and Summitt, Architectural Polychromy, 76.

  • 21. Oscar Broneer, Isthmia: 1, Temple of Poseidon (Princeton, NJ: The American School of Classical Studies, 1971), 33–34, pl. A-C; and Dieter Niemeier, Das Orakelheiligtum des Apollon von Abai/Kalapodi: eines der bedeutendsten griechischen Heiligtümer nach den Ergebnissen der neuen Ausgrabungen, Trierer Winckelmannsprogramme 25/2013 (Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz, 2016), 17–18, pl. 6.3.

  • 22. Eric M. Moormann, Divine Interiors: Mural Paintings in Greek and Roman Sanctuaries (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2011), 43–44, with images and further bibliography.

  • 23. Susanne Berndt-Ersöz, Phrygian Rock-Cut Shrines: Structure, Function, and Cult Practice (Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2006), 35–39, 232–234, Figs. 50, 134.

  • 24. Paus. 3.17.3–5, 10.5.9, and 11; Pind. Pae. 8, 41; Philostr. VA 6.11; Normann, Architekturtoreutik, 25-42, with earlier bibliography; Hanna Philipp, Archaische Silhouettenbleche und Schildzeichen in Olympia (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2004), 13–18; and Susan Kane, “Bronze Plaques from the Archaic Favissa at Cyrene,” in Cirenaica: Studi, scavi e scoperte, parte I: Nuovi dati da città e territorio, Atti del X Convegno di Archeologia Cirenaica Chieti 2426 Novembre 2003, BAR International Series 1488, ed. Emanuela Fabbricotti and Oliva Menozzi (Oxford: Hedges, 2006), 205–216.

  • 25. Paestum (Italy), Temple of Hera I; for Samos and Heraion, see Hoepfner, “Farbe,” 38; and Hellmann, L’Architecture grecque, 230.

  • 26. Summitt, Architectural Polychromy, 69–71, 138.

  • 27. Katherine M. Dunbabin, Mosaics of the Greek and Roman World (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 5; and Hellmann, L’Architecture grecque, 251 with bibliography.

  • 28. Aegina, Later Temple of Aphaia, red mortar floor (early observation); Argos, Temple of Hera, grey-green pavement: Summitt, Architectural Polychromy, 384, 438.

  • 29. Brecoulaki, “Precious Colours,” 15–19, and “Interior Decoration,” 683–684; and Brecoulaki has a comprehensive study in preparation.

  • 30. Elena Walter-Karydi, “Prinzipien der archaischen Farbgebung,” in Studien zur Klassischen Archäologie, Festschrift Friedrich Hiller, ed. Karin Braun (Saarbrücken, Germany: Saarbrücker, 1986), 23–41; Summitt, Architectural Polychromy, 209; Hellmann, L’Architecture grecque, 230, 232; and .

  • 31. For this and the following, comprehensively and with evidence, see Summitt, Architectural Polychromy, 80–133, 185–211.

  • 32. Schwandner (with analysis of J. Riederer), Der ältere Porostempel, 130, 136–140; Hansgeorg Bankel, Der spätarchaische Tempel der Aphaia auf Aegina (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1993), 111–113; Hansgeorg Bankel,“Farbmodelle des spätarchaischen Aphaia-Tempels von Ägina,” in Bunte Götter. Die Farbigkeit antiker Skulptur. Eine Ausstellung der Staatlichen Antikensammlungen und Glyptothek München, ed. Vinzenz Brinkmann and Raimund Wünsche (Munich: Hirmer, 2004), 80, 83, figs. 127, 128; Hermann J. Kienast, “Ein verkanntes Antenkapitell aus dem Heraion von Samos,” Istanbuler Mitteilungen 39 (1989), 257–263; Klaus Hermann, “Zu den Antenkapitellen des Zeustempels,” Bericht über die Ausgrabungen in Olympia, vol. 10 (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1981), 302–317; and Wolf Koenigs, Der Athenatempel von Priene (Wiesbaden, Germany: Reichert, 2015), 41–43, pl. 40.

  • 33. Summitt, Architectural Polychromy, 127, 177–178, with an overview on the evidence and partly contradicting Walter-Karydi, “Prinzipien,” 29–31 (followed by Hellmann, L’Architecture Grecque, 232).

  • 34. E.g., Athens, Acropolis, blue-bearded heads of the Hekatompedon West pediment: Summitt, Architectural Polychromy, 124–128.

  • 35. Bankel, “Farbmodelle des spätarchaischen Aphaia-Tempels,” 80–81.

  • 36. Colour traces on buildings from Samos, Naxos, Didyma, Ephesos, and Naucratis (comprehensively with bibliog. raphy; Summitt, Architectural Ppolychromy, 131–1-43); gilding: John Turtle Wood, Modern Discoveries on the Site of Ancient Ephesus (London: Religious Tract Society, 1890), 62; and Ian Jenkins, Greek Architecture and its Sculpture in the British Museum (London: British Museum Press, 2006), 38, Fig. 19.

  • 37. Georges Daux, and Erik Hansen, Fouilles de Delphes 2. Topographie et Architecture. Le Trésor de Siphnos (Paris: De Boccard, 1987), 222, 233; Vinzenz Brinkmann, Beobachtungen zum formalen Aufbau und zum Sinngehalt der Friese des Siphnierschatzhauses (Ennepetal: Biering & Brinkmann, 1994), 39–52; and Summitt, Architectural polychromy, 133–136, 139–141.

  • 38. Epidauros: IG IV2 102, ll.21,50, 56, 300; Delphi: CID II, 56, A, l. 30; Sanctuary of the Thermopyles: CID III, 1 l.16; for Delos: Hellmann, Recherches, 89–91, s.v. graphō; further Pl. NH 35.5 and 124; private interiors: Aelian and Nigel Guy Wilson, Historical Miscellany (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015), 14.17; Plutarch, Alcibiades 16; summaries: Hellmann, L’Architecture grecque, 232, 234; and Brecoulaki, “Interior Decoration,” 673–674.

  • 39. Erechtheion: IG I3, 476, ll. 270-72; Epidauros: IG IV2 102, ll. 21–22, 49–50, 57–58, 75–77, 80–82, 108–109; and on paradeigmata now Sebastian Prignitz, Bauurkunden und Bauprogramm von Epidauros (400350): Asklepiostempel, Tholos, Kultbild, Brunnenhaus (Munich: C. H. Beck, 2014), 81–82.

  • 40. For an overview see Christina Vlassopoulou, “New Investigations into the Polychromy of the Parthenon,” in Circumlitio: The Polychromy of Antique and Mediaeval Sculpture; Conference Proceedings, 10–12 December 2008, Liebieghaus-Skulpturensammlung Frankfurt am Main, ed. Vinzenz Brinkmann, Oliver Primavesi, Max Hollein (Munich: Hirmer, 2010), 218–223; add now Eleni Aggelakopoulou, Sophia Sotiropoulou and Georgios Karagiannis, “The Architectural Polychromy on the Athenian Acropolis. New data obtained through recent in situ noninvasive analytical investigation of the colour remains on the Parthenon and Propylaea” (paper presented at the 9th International Round Table on Polychromy in Ancient Sculpture and Architecture, British Museum London, November 9-10 November 2018; conference proceedings in preparation).

  • 41. Athens: IG I3, 476, ll.54–55, 351–353; Epdiauros: IG IV2 102, l.81 and IG IV2 104, l.136; Delos: ID 161, A, l.73; further Marie-Christine Hellmann, Recherches, 336–337, s.v. pétalon; Summitt, Architectural Polychromy, 206, 211, 219–220; and for early observations Alessia Zambon, “Les Premiers Voyageurs et la dorure du Parthénon. Mise au point sur une controverse ancienne,” Revue Archéologique 53 (2012), 41–61.

  • 42. Adeline Grand-Clément, “Poikilia,” in A Companion to Ancient Aesthetics, Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World, ed. Pierre Destrée and Penelope Murray (Chichester, U.K. and Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, 2015), 406–421; Examples from Isthmia, Calydon, Athens and Olympia; see Summitt, Architectural polychromy, 178, 188, and Hoepfner, “Farbe,” 40, Fig. 1.2; Capitals with colour variation, perhaps from the same building: Lucy Shoe Meritt, “Athenian Ionic capitals from the Athenian Agora,” Hesperia 65 (1996): 154, figs 20–21, pls. 40–44; also Vinzenz Brinkmann, ed., Athen - Triumph der Bilder: Eine Ausstellung der Liebieghaus Skulpturensammlung, Frankfurt am Main, 4. Mai bis 4. September 2016 (Petersberg: Michael Imhof Verlag, 2016), 97–98.

  • 43. Charles Robert co*ckerell, The Temples of Jupiter Panhellenius at Aegina and of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae near Phigaleia in Arcadia (London: Weale, 1860), 58, Pl. XV; and Frederick A. Cooper: The Temple of Apollo Bassitas 1:The Architecture (Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1996), 316–317.

  • 44. David Scahill, “The Origins of the Corinthian Capital,” in Structure, Image, and Ornament. Architectural Sculpture in the Greek World, Proceedings of an International Conference held at the American School of Classical Studies, 27–28 November 2004, ed. Peter Schultz (Oxford: Oxbow, 2009), 40–53.

  • 45. Normann, Architekturtoreutik, 52–3, 67–76; Scahill, “Origins of the Corinthian Capital,” 44–45; metal acroteria: Paus. 5.10.4; and Hdt. Hist. 1.50.

  • 46. Eva Marianne Stern, “Die Kapitelle der Nordhalle des Erechtheion,” Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Athenische Abteilung 100 (1985), 402–426, pls. 91–96.

  • 47. Alfred Mallwitz and Wolfgang Schiering, Die Werkstatt des Pheidias in Olympia (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1964), 23–34, 145–156, pls. 39–44.

  • 48. Marie-Françoise Billot, “Terres cuites architecturales, peintures et mosaïques aux Ve et IVe siècles,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Greek Architectural Terracottas of the Classical and Hellenistic Periods, Dec. 1215, 1991, ed. Nancy A. Winter (Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1994), 1–38; Summitt, Architectural Polychromy, 259; and Winter, Greek Terracottas, 51.

  • 49. Comprehensively, Summitt, Architectural Polychromy, 199–203.

  • 50. Lucy T. Shoe, “Dark Stone in Greek Architecture,” Hesperia Suppl. 8, 1949, 341–352, with further examples; Cooper, Apollo Bassitas, 315; Summitt, “Architectural Polychromy,” 210–211; and Koenigs, “Erscheinung,” 716.

  • 51. Koenigs, “Erscheinung,” 714.

  • 52. Comprehensively, Thanassis E. Kalpaxis, Hermiteles. Akzidentelle Unfertigkeit und “Bossenstil” in der griechischen Baukunst (Mainz, Germany: Zabern, 1986); and Koenigs, “Erscheinung,” 717.

  • 53. Paus. 1.15.10 and 25–31, 1.22.6, 5.21.17, 9.4.1–2; Ath. 6.253b, 13.577c; overviews: Hellmann, L’Architecture grecque, 254–255; and Moormann, Divine Interiors, 8–16.

  • 54. Pinakes in columns—Olympia, Heraion: Wilhelm Dörpfeld, Alt-Olympia 1 (Berlin: Mittler, 1935), 170; and temple doors—Spencer Pope and Peter Schultz, “The Chryselephantine Doors of the Parthenon,” American Journal of Archaeology 118 (2014): 19–31; and for painting on ivory see Hariclia Brecoulaki et al., “A Microcosmos of Colour and Shine: The Polychromy of Chryselephantine Couches from Ancient Macedonia.” Technè 40 (2014): 14–15.

  • 55. Herbert Koch, Studien zum Theseustempel in Athen (Berlin: Akademie, 1955), 100; Evelyn B. Harrison, “Theseum East Frieze: Color and Attachments,” Hesperia 57 (1988): 339–349; Jenkins, Greek Architecture and Sculpture, 42–43; and Vlassopoulou, “New investigations,” 220.

  • 56. E.g., Athens, Erechtheion and Mausoleum of Halicarnassos; and Koenigs, “Erscheinung,” 718.

  • 57. Vincent J. Bruno, “Antecedents to the Pompeian First Style,” American Journal of Archaeology 73 (1969): 305–317; Elena Walter-Karydi, The Greek House: The Rise of Noble Houses in Late Classical Times (Athens: Archaeological Society at Athens, 1998), 33; Hellmann, L’Architecture grecque, 246–247; Koenigs, “Erscheinung,” 718; and Brecoulaki, “Interior Decoration,” 679.

  • 58. Tholoi at Delphi and Epidauros: Hellmann, L’Architecture grecque, 260; and Koenigs, “Erscheinung,” 717.

  • 59. Dunbabin, Mosaics, 5–10; and Brecoulaki, “Interior Decoration,” 675.

  • 60. Normann, Architekturtoreutik, 96–100, 110–111; Summitt, Architectural Polychromy, 206; and .

  • 61. Erwin Emmerling, Kathrin Adelfinger, Julia Reischl, “On the Painting Technique of the Tomb Chamber,” in Tatarli: Renklerin Dönüsu—The Return of Colours—Rückkehr der Farbe, ed. Latife Summerer and Alexander von Kienlin (Istanbul: T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, 2010), 204–233.

  • 62. Overview in Summitt, Architectural Polychromy, 301.

  • 63. Summitt, Architectural Polychromy, 228–229, 245–246, 266–269, 276–280, 288; now also Stanzl, “Ptolemaion von Limyra,” 183–1-84, fig. 13 (here Fig. 11); and moreover, the Kasta-Tomb at Amphipolis (antae capital) and the Tomb of the Prince (Tomb III) at Vergina (interior frieze).

  • 64. Vincent J. Bruno, “The Painted Metopes at Lefkadia and the Problem of Color in Doric Sculpted Metopes,” American Journal of Archaeology (1981): 8–11; very sparing use of color also on the large frieze of the Pergamon Altar; for scholarship see Clarissa Blume, Polychromie hellenistischer Skulptur: Ausführung, Instandhaltung und Botschaften (Petersberg, Germany: Imhof, 2015), 246–247; and on architectural monochromy during the Hellenistic period Summitt, Architectural Polychromy, 275, 282–293.

  • 65. E.g., Curtius and Adler, Olympia Tafelband 2, pls. 113–114; now also Moritz Taschner and Stephan Zink, “Magnesia am Mäander in der Berliner Antikensammlung. Neue Ansätze zur Erforschung antiker Architektur,” Antike Welt 2 (2016): 35–37; Stephan Zink et al., “Hermogenes’ Temple of Artemis and its Polychromy: Current Research in the Antikensammlung Berlin” (paper presented at the VIII. International Roundtable “Polychromy in Ancient Sculpture and Architecture”, Paris, November 15–16, 2016; and forthcoming in Technè 2019); for further examples, see note 69.

  • 66. E.g., Ath. V.196a–197c; 204d–206c (banqueting tent of Ptolemy II and floating palace of Ptolemy IV); Normann, Architekturtoreutik, 122–123, 179; and Hellmann, L’Architecture grecque, 245.

  • 67. Mausoleum of Belevi: Camillo Praschniker, Max Theuer, Wilhelm Alzinger, Das Mausoleum von Belevi (Wien: Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut, 1979), 64, 68 Taf. 49a; Alexandria, Greco-Roman Museum, capital from Hermopolis Magna/el-Ashmunein: Hoepfner, “Farbe,” 42–43, Fig. 6 colour reconstruction with conjectural green leafs; Olympia, capital from Stadion entrance: Curtius and Adler, Olympia, Textband 1 (1892), 69–70 (R. Borrmann); Curtius and Adler, Olympia Tafelband 2, pls. 114; two pieces from Pantikapeion: Michail Ivanovič Rostovtzeff and Alix Barbet, La peinture décorative antique en Russie méridionale: Saint-Pétersbourg 19131914 (Paris: De Boccard, 2004), Pl. 52, 2–4.

  • 68. For examples, see Gideon Foerster, Masada V: The Yigael Yadin Excavations 19631965, Final Reports, Art and Architecture (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1995), 112–113, Pl. XVI a,b; and add Hermopolis Magna (as in note 68).

  • 69. Foerster, Masada V, 112–113; Judith McKenzie, The Architecture of Alexandria and Egypt: c. 300 B.C. to A.D. 700 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007), 103.

  • 70. For this and the following, comprehensively (with examples), see Robert Lorentz Scranton, Greek Walls (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1941), 99–136; Koenigs, “Erscheinung,” 714–717; noteable examples are Phyllis Williams Lehmann, “The Wall Decoration of the Hieron in Samothrace,” Balkan Studies 5 (1964): 278–279; and Jari Pakkanen, “The Temple of Zeus at Stratos: New Observations on the Building Design,” Arctos 38 (2004): 109, Fig. 7. See also Jenkins, Gratziu, Middleton, “Polychromy,” 39, pl. 21; and Jenkins, Greek Architecture and Sculpture, Figs. 14, 20.

  • 71. Ulrich-Walter Gans, “Hellenistische Architekturteile aus Hartgestein in Alexandria,” Archäologischer Anzeiger (1994), 433–453 including textual evidence.

  • 72. For the use at Halicarnassos, c. 350 bce, Pl. H.N. 36.47 and Vitr. 2.8.10; the earliest archaeological evidence is, however, from c. 150 bce: Richard Delbrueck, Antike Porphyrwerke (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1932), 34–35; and Tobias Bitterer, “Marmorverkleidung stadtrömischer Architektur. Öffentliche Bauten aus dem 1. Jahrhundert v. Chr. bis 7. Jahrhundert n. Chr,” (PhD diss., University of Munich, 2013), 13–14.

  • 73. Brecoulaki, “Interior Decoration,” 680–681; and Hellmann, L’Architecture grecque, 246–250, with further examples and bibliography.

  • 74. Lehmann, “Wall Decoration”; Hellmann, L’Architecture grecque, 246–251; Koenigs, “Erscheinung,” 718; and Brecoulaki, “Interior Decoration,” 680.

  • 75. Dunbabin, Mosaics, 18–38; and Brecoulaki, “Interior Decoration,” 675–679.

  • 76. Best examples from Pergamon and Alexandria; see Dunbabin, Mosaics, 24–30.

  • 77. Anne-Marie Guimier-Sorbets, “De la peinture à la mosaique: problèmes de couleurs et de techniques à l’époque hellénistique,” in Peinture et couleur dans le monde frec antique; actes de colloque, Musée du Louvre, 10 et 27 Mars 2004, ed. Sophie Descamps-Lequime (Paris: Musée du Louvre, 2007), 205–218.

  • 78. Karin Tancke, Figuralkassetten griechischer und römischer Steindecken (Frankfurt: P. Lang, 1989); Hellmann, L’Architecture grecque, 255–256; Julia Valeva, The Painted Coffers of the Ostrusha Tomb (Sofia, Bulgaria: "Bulgarski houdozhnik, 2005); and Summitt, Architectural Polychromy, 234.

  • 79. Helle Damgaard Andersen, “Etruscan Architecture from the Late Orientalizing to the Archaic Period (c. 640–480 B.C.)” (PhD diss. University of Copenhagen, 1998), 41, 93.

  • 80. Andersen, “Etruscan Architecture,” 137, 209; and Stephan Steingräber, Etruskische Wandmalerei: von der geometrischen Periode bis zum Hellenismus (Munich: Schirmer/Mosel, 2006), 16 (English translation available).

  • 81. Examples in Steingräber, Etruskische Wandmalerei, 6061, 64–65; and Winter, Symbols, 223, 520.

  • 82. Winter, Symbols, 142, 459, 462–463.

  • 83. Winter, Symbols, 520–521; for scientific analysis, see Francesca Bordignon, Paolo Dore, Paolo Postorino, “In Search of Etruscan Colours: A Spectroscopic Study of a Painted Terracotta Slab from Ceri,” Archaeometry, 49 (2007): 87–100; Francesca Bordignon, Paolo Postorino, Paolo Dore, and G. Trosji, “Raman Identification of Green and Blue Pigments in Etruscan Polychromes on Architectural Terracotta,” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 38 (2007): 255–259; Francesca Bordignon et al., “The White Colour in Etruscan Polychrome Terracotta: Spectroscopic Identification of Kaolin,” Journal of Cultural Heritage 9 (2008): 23–29; and observation of gilding: Koch, Dachterrakotten, 13, 39 (P. 348, Archaic figural antefix from Capua).

  • 84. Steingräber, Wandmalerei, 64–65; and Winter, Symbols, 520.

  • 85. For the following see Winter, Symbols, 522.

  • 86. Mauro Cristofani. La grande Roma dei Tarquini: Roma, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, 12 giugno30 settembre 1990 (Rome: Erma di Bretschneider, 1990), 128–129; traces of painting also on examples from Gravisca, Marzabotto, Orvieto and Rome (Andersen, “Etruscan architecture,” 82 for details and bibliography).

  • 87. Cristofani, La grande Roma, 121–124 (Francesco Paolo Arata); and Winter, Greek Terracottas, 149–150, 189–192.

  • 88. Evidence from Murlo, Roselle, Ficana, Pyrgi, Tarquinia, and Rome (see Andersen, “Etruscan Architecture”, 93–99).

  • 89. For tombs, see Steingräber, Wandmalerei, 129–132.

  • 90. Carlo Rescigno, “Metope dipinte con centauromachia da un tempio Cumano di epoca Sannitica. Osservazioni preliminari,” in Atti del X Congresso Internazionale dell’AIPMA (Association internationale pour la peinture murale Antique), Napoli, 1721 Settembre 2007, ed. Irene Bragantini (Napoli: Università degli studi di Napoli, 2010), 15–28 (with earlier bibliography).

  • 91. E.g., Cerveteri (Tomba dei Rilievi), Vulci (Tomba Francois): Mauro Cristofani, "Ricerche sulle pitture della Tomba François di Vulci. I fregi decorativi." Dialoghi di Archeologia (1967), 186–219; and Steingräber, Wandmalerei, 195, 204–205.

  • 92. Findings from Cosa and Morgantina; Bruno, “Antecedents,” 305; and Anne Laidlaw, The First Style in Pompeii: Painting and Architecture (Rome: G. Bretschneider, 1985), 34.

  • 93. Gabriella Barbieri, Gianna Giachi, Pasquino Pallecchi, Polychrome Rock Architectures: Problems of Colour Preservation in the Etruscan Necropolis of Sovana (Rome: F. Serra, 2013); and Gabriella Barbieri, “Il colore nelle architetture funerarie di Sovana. La tomba dei Demoni Alati e altri monumenti policromi,” The Journal of Fasti Online (2015): 1–16.

  • 94. Barbieri, “Colore Sovana,” with colour reconstructions figs. 4 and 12.

  • 95. Hermann Winnefeld, “Antichità di Alatri,” Römische Mitteilungen 4 (1889): 143–146; Adolfo Cozza, “Di un antico tempio scoperto presso Alatri,” Römische Mitteilungen 6 (1891): 349–359; and for the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina, see note 35.

  • 96. Maria Josè Strazzulla, “Le terrecotte architettoniche nei territori italici,” in Deliciae Fictiles III: Architectural Terracottas in Ancient Italy: New Discoveries and Interpretations; Proceedings of the International Conference held at the American Academy in Rome, November 78, 2002, ed. by Ingrid Edlund-Berry (Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2006), 35–38.

  • 97. J. Clayton Fant, “Augustus and the City of Marble,” in Archéomatériaux: marbres et autres roches, ASMOSIA IV, actes de la IVème Conférence Internationale de l’Association pour l’étude des marbres et autres roches utilisés dans le passé, Bordeaux-Talence, 913 Octobre 1995, ed. Max Schvoerer (Bordeaux: CRPAA, 1999), 277–280; and for the use of giallo antico forthcoming Stefan Ardeleanu, “Giallo Antico in Context. New Stratigraphic Data from the Western Mediterranean (2nd century bce–1st century ce), in ASMOSIA XI International conference, Association for the Study of Marbles & Other Stones in Antiquity, Split, 1822 May 2015, ed. Katja Marasović, TBD.

  • 98. Fabio Barry, “Painting in Stone: The Symbolism of Colored Marbles in the Visual Arts and Literature from Antiquity until the Enlightenment” (PhD diss., University of Columbia, 2011), 64–71, 92; and Éva Dubois-Pelerin, Le luxe privé à Rome et en Italie au Ier siècle après J.-C. (Naples: Centre Jean Berard, 2008), 131.

  • 99. See various examples in Giuseppe Pellino, Rilievi architettonici fittili d’età imperiale dalla Campania (Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider, 2006), most notably 52–53 Tav. XII and XIII; and Fabrizio Pesando, “La domus pompeiana in età sannitica: Nuove acquisizioni dalla Regio VI,” in Etruskisch-italische und römisch-republikanische Häuser, eds. Martin Bentz and Christoph Reusser (Wiesbaden: L. Reichert, 2010), 243–253; recently, also Zink, “Polychromy,” 238.

  • 100. For private use Pl. H.N. 36.2.6–8; and for a general overview Patrizio Pensabene, I marmi nella Roma Antica (Rome: Carocci, 2013), 30–56.

  • 101. Observation of colour traces in Rome on the temples of Portunus and Mars Ultor, as well as the Tabularium; further, Palmyra, Temple of Bel; overviews with bibliog. Mattern, “Erscheinungsformen”, 24–26; Zink, “Polychromy”, 245–246.

  • 102. Stephan Zink and Heinrich Piening, “Haec Aurea Templa: The Palatine Temple of Apollo and its Polychromy,” Journal of Roman Archaeology 22 (2009): 109–122.

  • 103. Ana Portillo Gómez, “La policromía del templo de la calle Morería en el forum novum de Colonia Patricia,” Archivo español de Arqueología 88 (2015): 171–185; Ana Portillo Gómez, “La importancia del color en la arquitectura pública Romana: Testimonios del empleo de marmora y pintura en algunos templos de la Bética,” Cuadernos de Arqueología Universidad de Navarra 24 (2016).

  • 104. Orietta Rossini, "I Colori dell’Ara Pacis: Storia di un Esperimento," Archeomatica 3 (September 2010): 20–25 (with reconstructions); Giulia Caneva, Il codice botanico di Augusto: Ara Pacis: parlare al popolo attraverso le immagini della natura (Roma: Gangemi, 2010), 131–140; and Simona Foresti, “La policromia dell’Ara Pacis e i colori del Campo Marzio settentrionale,” in Colore e Colorimetria: Contribuiti Multidisciplinari vol. VII A, Atti della settima conferenza nazionale del colore. Gruppo del Colore, Sapienza Università di Roma, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Roma, 1516 settembre 2011, ed. Maurizio Rossi (Santarcangelo di Romagna, RN: Maggioli S.p.A., 2011), 333–340.

  • 105. Hoepfner, “Farbe,” 44; and McKenzie, Alexandria, 166, fig. 286.

  • 106. Overviews Normann, Architekturtoreutik, 178–180; and Mattern “Erscheinungsformen”, 10–14.

  • 107. Bronze doors, Rome, Capitoline Temple of Jupiter (3rd century bce): Livy, 10.23.12 and Pl. H.N. 34.7.13 on the general practice; further, Val. Max. 5.6.3; Varro, Ling. 5.163; Festus, Gloss. Lat. 275; Joseph. BJ 5.5.3–4. Bronze acroteria, Rome, Capitoline Temple of Jupiter (early 3rd century bce): Livy 10.23.12; acroterion of Temple of Mars Ultor: Lucrezia Ungaro (ed.), The Museum of the Imperial Forums in Trajan’s Market (Rome: Electa, 2007), 130, 136, figs. 167–168. Bronze and silver shields or clipei, Rome, Capitoline Temple of Jupiter (early 2nd century bce): Pl. H.N. 35.4.14, Livy 35.10.12; and Basilica Aemilia (179 bce): Pl. H.N. 35.3.13. Coffered ceilings in private homes, Rome, Capitoline Temple of Jupiter (142 bce): Pl. H.N. 33.18.57, Paus. 5.10.5; possibly, a stucco-coffered and gilded ceiling in the Temple of Apollo Medicus (a.k.a. Sosianus): Normann, Architekturtoreutik, 183, with bibliography. Bronze roof tiles, Rome, Capitoline Temple of Jupiter (after 83 bce), gilded bronze roof: Pl. H.N. 33.18.57 and 36.4.45, Cic. Verr. 4.69, Sen. Controv. 1.64; Temple of Vesta in Forum: Pl. H.N. 34.6.13, Ov. Fast. 6.261, Verg. Aen. 8.347.

  • 108. Overviews Charles Brian Rose, “The Temple of Athena at Ilion,” Studia Troica 13, 2003, 65–66; Richard Posamentir and Holger Wienholz, “Gebäude mit litterae aureae in den kleinasiatischen Provinzen, die Basilika von Berytus und der Jupitertempel von Baalbek,” Istanbuler Mitteilungen 62 (2012): 161–198; and Walter Trillmich, “Aureae Litterae,” Madrider Mitteilungen 54 (2013): 326–347.

  • 109. Rome, Porticus Octavia (167/66 bce): Pl. H.N. 34.3.13; Pantheon of Agrippa (27 bce): Pl. H.N. 34.7.1; and probably Palmyra, Temple of Bel (earlier 1st century ce): Henri Seyrig, Robert Amy, Ernest Will, Le Temple de Bel à Palmyre (Paris: Geuthner, 1975), 94–95, 212, fig. 42.

  • 110. Pierre Gros, Aurea Templa: Recherches sur l’architecture religieuse de Rome à l’époque d’Auguste (Rome: École Française, 1976), 40–1; and Barry, “Painting in Stone,” 25.

  • 111. Now comprehensively, Moormann, Divine Interiors.

  • 112. Laidlaw, First Style, 15; Hellmann, L’Architecture grecque, 246.

  • 113. Dubois-Pelerin, Luxe Privé, 149–152; Barry, “Painting in Stone,” 61–62; and Pensabene, Marmi, 23–46.

  • 114. Lucrezia Ungaro, “Il rivestimento dipinto dell’ ‘Aula del Colosso’ nel Foro di Augusto,” in I colori del bianco: Policromia nella scultura antica,Musei Vaticani. Collana di Studi e Documentatzione, eds. Paolo Liverani, Hansgeorg Bankel, Anna Gramiccia (Rome: De Luca, 2004), 275–280; scientific analysis: Ulderico Santamaria, Fabio Moresi, Maurizio Delle Rose, “Indagini scientifiche dei pigmenti e leganti delle lastre marmoree dipinte dell’Aula del Colosso del Foro di Augusto,” in I colori del bianco, 281–289; Ungaro, Museum, 144–151, with visual reconstructions (Fig. 188).

  • 115. For this and the following (with examples), compare Dunbabin, Mosaics, 55–58, 73, 101, 254–268.

  • 116. Federico Guidobaldi, “Sectilia pavimenta e incrustationes: i rivestimenti polichromi pavimentali e parietali in marmo o materiali litici e litoidi dell’antichità romana,” in Eternità e nobilità di materia. Itinerario artistico fra le pietre policrome, ed. Annamaria Giusti (Florence: Polistampa, 2003), 15–76.

  • 117. Hundreds of examples from Ostia and elsewhere; corpus of mosaics from Antiochia ranging from early 2nd to 5th century ce: Dunbabin, Mosaics, 56–58, 103.

  • 118. Generally, Sear, 1977; Dunbabin, Mosaics, 236–245; scientific analysis: Cristina Boschetti, “Vitreous Materials in Early Mosaics in Italy: Faience, Egyptian Blue, and Glas,” Journal of Glass Studies 53 (2011): 59–91; Cristina Boschetti, Cristina Leonelli, Anna Corradi, “The Earliest Wall mosaics and the Origin of Roman Glass in Italy: Archaeological Considerations for an Archaeometric Study,” in Annales du 18e Congrès de l’Association Internationale pour l’Histoire du Verre, Thessaloniki 2009, eds. Despina Ignatiadou, Anastassios Antonaras (Thessaloniki: ZITI Publishing, 2012), 139–144.

  • 119. Mielsch, Stuckreliefs, 14–15, 105–106.

  • 120. Mielsch, Stuckreliefs, 109–110; and Roger Ling, “Stucco Decoration in Pre-Augustan Italy,” Papers of the British School at Rome 40 (1972): 11–58.

  • 121. Also Ursula Mandel, “On the Qualities of the ‘Color’ White in Antiquity,” in Circumlitio, 303–323.

  • 122. For evidence, see Mielsch, Stuckreliefs, passim; Roger Ling, Stuccowork and Painting in Roman Italy (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 1999); and Nicole Blanc, Le stuc dans l’art Romain. Origine et développement d’une technique décorative (Ier siècle avant au IIème siècle après Jésus-Christ (Phd diss., Université de Paris-Sorbonne, 2007).

  • 123. E.g., Rome, Palatine: so-called House of Augustus, cubiculo superiore and Aula Isiaca: Roger Ling, “Stucco,” European Association of Archaeologists 5 (1997): 459–460; and Irene Iacopi, La Casa di Augusto: Le Pitture (Milan, Italy: Electa, 2008).

  • 124. Ancient bronze doors in Rome Normann, Architekturtoreutik, 224; and Mattern,“Erscheinungsformen”, 15–21.

  • 125. Bradley, Colour and Meaning, 202–211; Barry, “Painting in Stone,” 67–68; Dario Del Bufalo, Porphyr. Red Imperial Porphyry. Power and Religion (Torino, Italy: University of Allemandi Press, 2012); and Mark Bradley, “Colour as Synaesthetic Experience in Antiquity,” in Synaesthesia and the Ancient Senses, eds. Shane Butler and Alex Purves (Durham: Acumen, 2013), 135–138.

  • 126. Silvia Nolte, “Schatteneffekte im Ornament der Kaiserzeit und der Einfluss des Lichtes auf die Ornamentik,” in Licht und Architektur, ed. Wolf-Dieter Heilmeyer and Wolfram Hoepfner (Tübingen: E. Wasmuth Verlag, 1990), 72–78.

  • 127. Wolf-Dieter Heilmeyer, Korinthische Normalkapitelle: Studien zur Geschichte der römischen Architekturdekoration (Heidelberg, Germany: F. H. Kerle, 1970), 137.

  • 128. Günther Schörner, Römische Rankenfriese: Untersuchungen zur Baudekoration der späten Republik und der frühen und mittleren Kaiserzeit im Westen des Imperium Romanum (Mainz: P. von Zabern, 1995), 131; Ralf Grüßinger, “Dekorative Architekturfriese in Rom und Latium. Ikonologische Studien zur römischen Baudekoration der späten Republik und der Kaiserzeit” (PhD diss., Ruprecht-Karl-Universität Heidelberg, 2001), 41; colour analysis: Rome, Trajan’s column: Marco del Monte, Patrick Ausset, Roger A. Lefèvre, “Traces of Ancient Colours on Trajan’s Column,” Archaeometry 40, no. 2 (1998): 403–412; and Rome, Arch of Titus Reliefs: and Steven Fine, “Heinrich Piening’s Preliminary Report of the Arch of Titus Digital Restoration Project,” Images 6 (2013): 26–29.

  • 129. Tuna Şare Ağtürk and Mark Abbe, “Painted Marble Reliefs from Tetrarchic Nicomedia: A Preliminary Report” (paper presented at the VIII. International Roundtable “Polychromy in Ancient Sculpture and Architecture”, Paris, November 15–16, 2016; forthcoming in Technè 2019); and on the polychromy of a relief panel, Tuna Şare Ağtürk, “A New Tetrarchic Relief from Nicomedia: Embracing Emperors,” American Journal of Archaeology 122, no. 3 (2018): 411–426.

  • 130. Examples in Nicole Blanc, “Au-delà des styles: les entablements peints et stuqués,” in Functional and Spatial Analysis of Wall Painting: Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress on Ancient Wall Painting, Amsterdam, 8–12 September 1992, Eric M. Moormann (Leiden: Stichting Babesch, 1993), 51–58; and Mielsch, Stuckreliefs, 70, 156.

  • 131. Hermann Phleps, Farbige Architektur bei den Römern und im Mittelalter (Berlin: E. Wasmuth, 1930), 20; and Mattern, “Erscheinungsformen”, 26.

  • 132. For examples, see Frank B. Sear, Roman Wall and Vault Mosaics (Heidelberg: F. H. Kerle, 1977), 82–83; V. Tam Tinh Tran, La casa dei cervi a Herculanum (Rome: G. Bretschneider, 1988), 78–83; and Dunbabin, Mosaics, 243–244.

  • 133. See Phleps, Farbige Architektur, 20–35; and Thomas Blagg, “The Use Of Terra-Cotta for Architectural Ornament in Italy and the Western provinces,” in Roman Brick and Tile: Studies in Manufacture, Distribution, and Use in the Western Empire, ed. Alan McWhirr (Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1979), 276–281.

  • 134. Phleps, Farbige Architektur, 24–25; Blagg, “Terra-cotta”, 276–277. Also noting colour traces: R. Egidi and R. Rea, Sepolcri della via Latina, in Archeologia e Giubileo. Gli interventi a Roma e nel Lazio nel Piano per il Grande Giubileo del 2000, ed. Fedora Filippi (Naples: Electa, 2001), 289–95.

  • 135. Blagg, “Terra-cotta”, 280–281.

  • 136. Nicole Riedl, “Wandmalerei in freier Bewitterung. Konservatorische Herausforderungen am UNESCO-Weltkulturerbe Konstantinsbasilika Tier – eine Einführung,” in Weltkulturerbe Konstantinsbasilika Trier. Wandmalerei in freier Bewitterung als konservatorische Herausforderung, ed. Nicole Riedl, ICOMOS: Hefte des Deutschen Nationalkomitees, vol. 55 (2013), 12–20; and Nicole Riedl and Friederike Funke, “Die römische Außenmalerei und ihre Restaurierungsgeschichte,” in Riedl, Weltkulturerbe, 42–54.

  • 137. Dina Sperl, “Glas und Licht in Architektur und Kunst,” in Licht und Architektur, eds. Wolf-Dieter Heilmeyer and Wolfram Hoepfner (Tübingen, Germany: E. Wasmuth, 1990), 65–70; for Herculaneum: Maria Paola Guidobaldi et al., “La presenza di vetri alle finestre di edifici pubblici e privati nell’antica Ercolano,“ in Il vetro in Italia centrale dall’antichità al contemporaneo, XVII Giornate Nazionali di Studio sul Vetro, Massa Martana and Perugia, March 1112, 2013, eds. Luciana Mandruzzato, Teresa Medici, Marina Uboldi (Milan: Centro Culturale Mediolanense, 2015), 139–143.

  • 138. Dubois-Pelerin, Luxe privé, 140–147; and Paolo Liverani, “Le colonne e il capitello in bronzo d’età romana dell’altare del SS. Sacramento in Laterano. Analisi archeologica e problematica storica,” Atti della Pontificia accademia romana di archeologia. Rendiconti 65 (1992–1993): 75–99.

  • 139. Dunbabin, Mosaics, 255, 259; and Dubois-Pelerin, Luxe privé, 166.

  • 140. Guidobaldi, “Sectilia pavimenta,” 30.

  • 141. For decorative friezes, see Dubois-Pelerin, Luxe privé, 143; and Sabrina Violante, “Rivestimenti parietali e pavimentali, elementi architettonici e di arredo minore,” in Museo Nazionale Romano: Evan Gorga: La collezione di archeologia, ed. Alessandra Capodiferro et al. (Milan, Italy: Electa 2013), 157–162 (pls. I–IV). For inlay of revetments, see Dubois-Pelerin, Luxe privé,152–158 on different meanings and applications. For capitals and pilasters, see Fedora Filippi (ed.), I colori del fasto: Palazzo Altemps; la domus del Gianicolo e i suoi marmi Roma, Museo Nazionale Romano in Palazzo Altemps, 17 Dicembre 200518 Aprile 2006 (Milan, Italy: Electa, 2005), 36–48, 52–65.

  • 142. Barry, “Painting in Stone,” 111–112; and see note 109 with further examples and bibliography.

  • 143. For examples, see Mielsch, Stuckreliefs, passim.

  • 144. Barry, “Painting in Stone,” 93–94, fig. 2.17–19; Elizabeth Bolman, “Late Antique Aesthetics, Chromophobia, and the Red Monastery, Sohag, Egypt,” Eastern Christian Art 3 (2006): 1–24; Bolman, “Painted skins: The Illusions and Realities of Architectural Polychromy, Sinai and Egypt,” in Approaching the Holy Mountain. Art and Liturgy at St. Catherine’s Monastery in the Sinai, ed. Sharon E-J. Gerstel and Robert S. Nelson (Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2010), 119–140.

  • 145. Mielsch, Stuckreliefs, 101–102.

  • 146. Domenico Camardo and Mario Notomista, “The Roof and Suspended Ceiling of the Marble Room in the House of the Telephus Relief at Herculaneum,” Journal of Roman Archaeology 28 (2015): 39–70; Angela Savalli, Paola Pesaresi, Lorenzo Lazzarini, “Casa del Rilievo di Telefo and Opus Sectile at Herculaneum,” in Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone 10. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference of ASMOSIA, ed. Patrizio Pensabene and Eleonora Gasparini (Rome: Erma di Bretschneider, 2014), 349–361.

  • 147. Mattern, “Erscheinungsformen”, 22–23; and Mark Bradley, “Colour and Marble in Early Imperial Rome,” The Cambridge Classical Journal 52 (2006): 1–22.

  • 148. Incrustations: Wolf-Dieter Heilmeyer, “Apollodorus von Damaskus, der Architekt des Pantheon,” Jahrbuch Des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts 90 (1975), 333–334; Bitterer, Marmorverkleidung, 163; and cupola: William L. MacDonald, The Pantheon. Design, Meaning, and Progeny (London: A. Lane 1976, repr. 2002), 38–40.

  • 149. Pompeii, Casa dei Quattro Stili (cubiculum) and House of the Golden Cupids (lararium): Dubois-Pelerin, Luxe privé, 153; and Barry, “Painting in Stone,” 95–96, fig. 2.21 and fig. 2.14 (stone inlays for veining at Ostia).

  • 150. Rome, Porta Maggiore and Claudium: Barry, “Painting in Stone,” 48–50.

  • 151. Barry, “Painting in Stone,” 112–121; Bente Kiilerich, “The Opus Sectile from Porta Marina at Ostia and the Aesthetics of Interior Decoration,” in Production and Prosperity in the Theodosian Period, ed. Ine Jacobs (Leuven, Belgium: Peeters, 2014), 169–87; Bente Kiilerich, “Subtlety and Simulation in Late Antique Opus Sectile,” in Il colore nel Medioevo: Arte, Simbolo, Tecnica: tra materiali constitutive e colori aggiunti: mosaici, intarsi e plastica lapidea, Atti delle Giornate di Studi Lucca 2426 Ottobre 2013, ed. Paola Antonella Andreuccetti, Deborah Bindani (Lucca, Istituto Storico Lucchese, 2016), 41–59.

  • 152. Barry, “Painting in Stone,” 147–50, Figs. 3.11–14; and Isabella Baldini: “Early Byzantine Churches in Crete and Cyprus between Local Identities and hom*ologation,” Cahiers du Centre d’Études Chypriotes 43 (2013): 34, Figs. 6a, b.

  • 153. Liz James, Light and Colour in Byzantine Art (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996).

  • 154. Liz James, “Colour and Meaning in Byzantium” Journal of Early Christian Studies 11 (2003): 223–233; Bissera V. Pentcheva, “Hagia Sophia and Mutlisensory Aesthetics,” Gesta 50 (2011): 93–111; and Nadine Schibille, Hagia Sophia and the Byzantine Aesthetic Experience (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014), 97–125.

  • 155. Peter Prater, “Streit um Farbe. Die Wiederentdeckung der Polychromie in der griechischen Architektur und Plastik im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert,” in Bunte Götter. Die Farbigkeit antiker Skulptur. Eine Ausstellung der Staatlichen Antikensammlungen und Glyptothek München, ed. Vinzenz Brinkmann and Raimund Wünsche (Munich: Hirmer, 2004), 257–267; still fundamental David van Zanten, The Architectural Polychromy of the 1830s (New York: Garland Publishing, 1977); and also Uta Hassler, ed., Maltechnik & Farbmittel der Semperzeit (Munich: Hirmer, 2014), with a comprehensive collection of primary texts.

  • 156. Recently, Arnd Hennemeyer, “Antike Architekturpolychromie im 19. Jahrhundert. Mit wissenschaftlicher Methode und künstlerischer Einfühlung vom Fragment zum Gesamtbild,” in Langfristperspektiven archäologischer Stätten. Wissensgeschichte und forschungsgeleitete Konservierung, ed. Uta Hassler (Munich: Hirmer, 2017), 275–298.

  • 157. James Stuart and Nicolas Revett, Antiquities of Athens vol. III (London: Haberkorn, 1794), 7, Pl. IX (D,E); Hansgeorg Bankel, ed., Carl Haller von Hallerstein in Griechenland: 18101817; Architekt, Zeichner, Bauforscher; Ausstellung: Carl Haller von Hallerstein in Griechenland 18101817, München 14, Februar bis 15, März 1986 (Berlin: Reimer, 1986).

  • 158. Jilleen Nadolny, “The first century of published scientific analyses of the materials of historical painting and polychromy, circa 1780–1880,” Reviews in Conservation 4 (2003): 1–13.

  • 159. Wilhelm Johann Zahn, Die schönsten Ornamente und merkwürdigsten Gemälde aus Pompeji, Herkulaneum und Stabiae nebst einigen Grundrissen und Ansichten nach den an Ort und Stelle gemachten Originalzeichnungen/ Les plus beaux ornements et les tableaux les plus remarquables de Pompei, d’Herculaneum et de Stabiae avec quelques plans, vues, d’après les dessins originaux exécutés sur les lieux, vol. 1 (Berlin: Reimer 1828/1829); on its signficance Arnd Hennemeyer, “Wilhelm Zahns Pompeji-Publikation: eine Inkunabel der Farblithografie,” in Hassler, Maltechnik & Farbmittel, 98–123.

  • 160. Jacques Ignace Hittorff, Restitution du temple d’Empédocle à Sélinonte, ou l’architecture polychrome chez les Grecs (Paris: Libraries de Firmin Didot Fréres, 1851).

  • 161. Franz Kugler, Ueber die Polychromie der griechischen Architektur und Skulptur und ihre Grenzen (Berlin: Gropius, 1835); and Gottfried Semper, Vorläufige Bemerkungen über bemalte Architectur und Plastik bei den Alten (Altona: Hammerich, 1834).

  • 162. For the state of knowledge at the end of the 19th century: Josef Durm, Handbuch der Architektur. Zweiter Theil. Die Baustile, Historische und Technische Entwicklung. Bd. 1: Die Baukunst der Griechen (3rd ed.; Leipzig: Kröner, 1910), 224–242.

  • 163. Gottfried Semper, “Scoprimento d’antichi colouri sulla Colonna di Trajano. Al dott. Kellermann,” Bullettino del Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica (1833), 92–93; publication of scientific results: Gottfried Semper, Die textile Kunst für sich betrachtet und in Beziehung zur Baukunst. Bd. 1. Der Stil in den technischen und tektonischen Künsten oder praktische Ästhetik (Frankfurt a. M.: Verl. für Kunst und Wissenschaft, 1860), 524–525; and Prosper-Mathieu Morey, “Sui colori altre volte veduti nelle sculture della Colonna trajana. Lettera al sig. cav. Bunsen,” Bullettino dell’Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica (1836), 39–41.

  • 164. On this, see Stephan Zink, “Polychrome Reconstructions of Roman Architecture between Evidence, Ideal, and Ideology,” in “Bauforschung” and Classical Architecture. Festschrift Lothar Haselberger, ed. Elisha Dumser and Dorian Borbonus (Oxford: Oxford University Press, TBD).

  • 165. E.g., Giulio Ferrari, Gli stili nella forma e nel colore. Rassegne del’arte Antica e Moderna d tutti paesi, vol. 1 (Turin: C. Crudo, 1925); or Phleps, Farbige Architektur.

  • 166. Schwandner, Der ältere Porostempel, 130, 136–140 (J. Riederer); Bankel, Tempel der Aphaia, 111–113; and Bankel, “Farbmodelle” (with colour reconstruction); Clemente Marconi, “Le attività dell’Institute of Fine Arts: NYU sull’Acropoli di Selinunte (2006–2010),” in Sicilia Occidentale: Studi, Rassegne, Ricerche, ed. Carmine Ampolo (Pisa: Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, 2012), 279–286. Fig. 484.

  • 167. See note 11 (“scialbatura”) and note 129 (Trajan’s column).

  • 168. Hellmann, L’Architecture grecque and Zink, “Polychromy”; for the earlier definition, Richard Borrmann, “Polychromie (der Bauwerke),” in Denkmäler des klassischen Altertums zur Erläuterung des Lebens der Griechen und Römer in Religion, Kunst und Sitte, ed. August Baumeister (Munich: R. Oldenbourg, 1888), 1335–1343.

  • 169. See note 152; Barry, “Painting in Stone”; Bradley, “Synaesthetic Experience”; Maud Mulliez, Le luxe de l’imitation. Les trompe l’oeil de la fin de la République romaine, mémoire des artisans de la couleur, Collection du Centre Jean Bérard 44 (Naples: Centre Jean Bérard, 2014); and Andreas Grüner, “Licht und Oberfläche bei Vitruv. Überlegungen zum Status sensualistischer Gestaltungsstrategien in der römischen Architektur,” in Firmitas et Splendor. Vitruv und die Techniken des Wanddekors, ed. Erwin Emmerling et al. (Munich: Verlag der Anton Siegl Fachbuchhandlung GmbH, 2014), 415–463; Grand-Clément, “Poikilia.”

  • 170. Groundbreaking is Summitt, Architectural Polychromy; further Mandel, “White in Antiquity”; Bente Kiilerich, “Monochromy, Dichromy, and Polychromy in Byzantine Art,” in Doron Rhodopoikilon. Studies in Honour of Jan Olof Rosenqvist, ed. Denis Searby, Ewa Balicka-Witakowska, and Johan Heldt (Uppsala, Finland: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012), 169–86; and Zink, “Polychromy,” passim.

polychromy, architectural, Greek and Roman (2024)

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